The currently developed HVAC system and technology aim at reducing the initial costs and the long-run operating expenses as it improves the quality of air people receive indoors. Some people are not sure if they should install the system in their homes or they should hold on; here are some approaches and essential things you should know or expect from HVAC:
Low-Temperature Air Distribution
It is the newest approach design of HVAC system that is highly used in new buildings or primary renovations. Whereby it works by lowering the temperature of any chilled air that has been distributed throughout the building. The main advantage of this approach is that it reduces the actual acquisition costs and long-term expenses by reducing ‘churn’ costs.
How does it achieve this? If the chilled air gets distributed in a facility within a range of 46 to 48 F, less air will be required to cool the inner of the facility; thus, piping and ductwork can be smaller compared to conventional systems. The downsizing of air and water flow makes the fans and pumps smaller; remember, fans operate where spaces are occupied, however, since less air will be needed to reduce the cost of energy.
It might be challenging and more expensive to ensure that air-change rates in interior spaces and the amount of fresh air getting into the area meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standards. This is even tougher to achieve during summer as the warm and moist air has to be cooled and dried before releasing it or allowing its use in ventilation. The Demand-controlled Ventilation system enables various people to cut down such costs as refrigeration or dehumidification costs. It modulates the amount of outside air entering a building changing the level of occupancy and pollutants.
The system makes it easy to know the amount of exterior air that should be allowed into an interior space by refining the low-cost electronic monitoring devices used to measure carbon dioxide levels accurately.
The Demand-controlled Ventilation can be used with other systems that mix fresh air with the interior space air and those with separate ducting to supply fresh air. The primary benefit of this system is reducing the first costs.
The standards set by ASHRAE concerning improving interior space’s air quality are beneficial to the well-being of every person; however, they are affected by one major problem. These standards tend to assume that all the air entering a room is purely clean; however, on the grounds, there is a massive variation in outdoor air quality based on things like the time of the day and the building’s location. Moreover, it is challenging to predict the air quality, significantly that the location’s conditions might change to better, worse, or even over time.
The high unpredictability levels have made facility owners ask their engineers to use specific high-efficiency filters, with an 85 percent efficiency in densely populated places. Some owners are clever in instructing their engineers to create extra spaces into the building designs for the air-handling units to make it easier to add filters or high-efficiency filters later. This is essential when the outdoor air declines, for instance, where the owner aims to attract tenants with stringent air quality requirements. Failure to build such spaces might make it very expensive to install the efficiency filters later.
The costs needed to facilitate the creation of the extra spaces are small, and therefore the project manager can easily account for them if the environment might change in the future. For example, if the competition in the commercial rental market becomes high, the owner might attract prospective tenants to ensure high indoor air quality.
Sizing Systems for Real-World Demand
For a long time now, excellent HVAC contractors demanded that such systems and their components be made large enough to accommodate high needs and use. In most constructions, you will find that engineers tend to size parts based on books rather than the real world. This is as a result of little initial performance information they have to use in making calculations. In contrast, others have increased such sizing beyond what is required for accommodating peak load and protecting it against under capacity.
Such a kind of sizing leads to more extensive systems beyond how they are supposed to be. A sizing system designed to accommodate a condition that is not likely to occur is expensive for the following reasons: additional costs are needed to buy the extra equipment, and the equipment load performance becomes less efficient.
It might not be easy to determine the mistake where the air conditioning system is oversized. Some people might argue that if a facility has a specific quantity of heat-generating equipment, it can be built big enough to handle the load that might occur if it was all running at once. However, this should not be considered because it is almost impossible for the heat-generating equipment to run simultaneously.
Different buildings used for other purposes need a unique approach; for instance, in a typical office building, the lighting and equipment happen to be the most significant cooling loads components. If the lighting design is advanced, a standard open workspace will be reduced to 0.8 to 1.0 watts per square foot. Consequently, equipment may be challenging to estimate due to their diversity as the actual use pattern changes constantly, and peak loads rarely occur continuously within a facility.
Sometimes it can be hard to convince your contractors not to oversize the systems when designing a new building. However, choosing diverse systems from floor to floor and space to space can be effective as they match dynamic loads. And avoid oversizing. Using fan-powered mixing boxes that differentiate the central air as they keep ventilation with good air quality are the devices you should use to ensure efficiency.
In addition, such systems can be incorporated with low-temperature air providing extra air capacity with less premium actual costs. Variable air quantity systems are meant to deliver cold air when required; however, this can reset increased levels where there are average conditions. They are efficient and even cost less.
Underfloor Air Distribution
One of the HVAC design systems approaches stresses more on the ‘air side’; it is mainly considered a low-pressure underfloor air supply. This approach ensures that the cool air maintained at a minimum positive pressure is supplied via access-floor plenums and reaches the occupied spaces passing through the diffusers set on the floor tiles where it should rise towards the ceiling return vents. Passing via natural radiation process by getting rid of heat among other pollutants from the space while moving upwards.
The approach is accompanied by various benefits than the conventional methods used to deliver air; the benefits include easy personal control of comfort conditions, reduced energy consumptions, and IAQ improvement. However, the initial cost for setting up this approach is expensive; you will get its value in the long run, for you will spend less than you could expect.
There is a current trend ensuring that the underfloor air supply can be an immediate alternative for various buildings in the future. This has been evident where glass windows are developed to regulate solar transmission and heat rejection.
Today, the underfloor air distribution systems are limited to facilities interiors. Moreover, in glazed buildings, it has been essential to supplement the underfloor air distribution with conventional methods that can easily handle large temperature swings likely to occur during the day. New glass technologies can highly enhance efficiency in a building; however, this is likely to happen in the next decade. Their development will make it easier to heat and cool the room temperature.
Building owners can make the right decisions based on what they want to achieve for their interior spaces with all the available approaches. However, they should focus on choosing methods or alternatives that enable them to save cost and make sense to any person using the interior space.